Variations of Temperature in the Arctic
The Arctic climate is not the same since a few decades ago. Factors such as climate change have caused the ice to melt faster and the temperatures are warmer, endangering the living beings that are fully adapted to these conditions and therefore need low temperatures to survive.
The winter months are considered very cold, since mid-season temperatures can drop to – 45 ° C, but the minimum recorded was -68 ° C.
In the summer season, which lasts from six to ten weeks, the conditions are different. During this stage a phenomenon called Midnight sun or polar day in which sunlight remains for 24 hours or a little more happens. This causes the melting of the seas, the emergence of plant life and the breaking of icebergs that float from north to south and completely changes the look of the Arctic landscape.
The winds are cold and usually remain at a light speed, but equally there have been very strong gusts of around 97 km / h with a duration of a few days.
Classification of Arctic Climates
For scientists, there are two types of arctic climates: maritime and continental.
The maritime climate refers to the climate that develops near the Arctic Ocean. In wet winters snowfall and rains reach 60 to 120 cm per year, while summers are cloudy and cool, with around 10 degrees Celsius.
The continental climate is present inland and far from the coast. Hence the climate becomes drier, with temperatures of -45 ° C in winter and 10 degrees in the summer months. Incredibly, in certain areas of the Arctic during the summer, there have been reported temperatures of 30 ° C. Far from being surprising, it’s really alarming.
In the Arctic, inversions are frequent, i.e., an abnormal increase in temperature with altitude. The cold air stays close to the ground, while the hot air is kept at the top. This can lead to increased air pollution, as the smog and pollution of cities are trapped in the layer of air that humans and other living beings breathe, causing some problems in the health of the inhabitants of these areas.
The humidity level in the Arctic is low, except the coastal areas during the summer where it tends to be higher. In the rest, moisture is kept low because the temperature is very cold, with only very little water getting to evaporate into the atmosphere.
The degree of cloudiness in the Arctic increases in the summer months, as the heat is greater and evaporation of creates hydrometeors.
During the winter season clouds are less present, due to the lack of moisture and evaporation.
Scientists explain a positive and a negative effect of clouds. Within the first, they claim that cloudiness is important to maintain the cold temperature of the Arctic, as these reflect sunlight and do not allow it to enter directly to the mainland, but at the same time, clouds trap all that heat and the ones that remain closer to the earth’s surface cause the temperature to rise. This occurs depending on factors such as the intensity of sunlight, the size and thickness of clouds and the temperature of the earth’s surface.
The Arctic presents a very interesting weather activity and all changes that the earth manifests, affect its temperature. We all depend on the Arctic climate and that is why it is imperative to maintain its natural characteristics.
What place is cooler: The Arctic or Antarctica?
The Arctic temperature will vary between summer and winter, but the record temperature was -68 ° C, while in Antarctica the lowest soil temperature was recorded on 10 August 2010; nothing more and nothing less than 93.2 ° C below zero. This far exceeded the earlier mark registered in 1983 with -89.2 degrees Celsius. Undoubtedly, the Arctic is very cold, but Antarctica is the coldest place on our planet.